Sunday, March 15, 2020
Swot Analysis of Bisleri Essays Swot Analysis of Bisleri Essay Swot Analysis of Bisleri Essay SWOT Analysis of Bisleri 1. Strength:- The strength of Bisleri are as follows:- a. Pioneer of packaged drinking water:- Bisleri is the pioneer of the packaged drinking water segment, so whenever one refers to the packaged drinking water the first name that comes is mind is of Bisleri. So popularity of Bisleri in packaged drinking water segment is very high as it is the pioneer of the packaged drinking water. Eg:- whenever a customer wants to buy an packaged drinking water the first name that comes to his mind is of Bisleri , bisleri has became an generic name for packaged drinking water. b. Innovation of the PET bottles:- Bisleri company was the first to launch the PET water which has better water transparency and the sparkling clear water was made visible to the customers via this bottles, the sales of Bisleri boost after they innovated the PET bottles. c. Main Focus on Mineral water segment:- After the company sold its coldrinks brands to Coca-Cola in 1993 for 400 crores the entire focus of the company was only on the packaged drinking water segment , as a result the number of new products were launched by the company in packaged drinking water segment that boost up its sales. . Bisleri have high water quality standard:- About 6 steps are involved in the complete purification of the mineral water at the Bisleri, so the quality standard of the Bisleri water is very high. e. Building of trust among the people regarding bisleri due to its high quality:- Bisleri was the pioneer of the packaged drinking water segment, they have been able to sustain for such long time in th e market only because of the trust they have been able to build in the minds of the customer by providing high quality water. . Vast Distribution System:- Bisleri have an vast distribution system through which they have been able to provide bisleri bottles in each and every corner of India. Bisleri have been able to reach rural areas of India also where the purity of water is the main problem among the peoples of rural areas. g. Better Understanding of the Customer needs:- Bisleri have launch wide range of products like 500ml bottle, 1. 2 litre bottle, 20 litre water cans by studying the various different needs of the customers. They have launch small bottles that is helpful for the travelling peoples, large cans for household purposes. Better understanding of the customer needs is very important for any company to sustain in the market, and is also helps the company to increase its sales. h. Increasing popularity of Bisleri in mineral water segment:- As bisleri was the pioneer of the packaged drinking water so it is the most popular in that segment and it is on every customer tongue whenever mineral water segment is been considered. The popularity of bisleri is increasing day by day and so are its profit margins. Small pack along with its bulk packs are most popular in the packaged drinking water segment. i. Unique Design to stop piracy:- Bisleri have launched unique break away seal bottle caps that are unique in it kinds and cannot be imitated. By launching such caps the company has been able to control the piracy of the bisleri bottles. 2. Weaknesses:- Weaknesses of Bisleri are as follows:- a. Faulty Reuse of the packaged drinking bottles:- After the mineral water bottle is consumed by the customer , the used bottles are been used by other peoples that fill it with water of low quality and sell it again in the market. b. Lack of Proper strategy for the use of used bottles:- Bisleri lacks an good strategy that will help them in proper use of the used bottles by the customer i. e Recycling. Proper recycling strategy will help them to cut down the cost of production of the PET bottles and will also help them to control the piracy done through used bottles. c. Low profit margin to the dealers:- In order to sustain in the growing competitive market of the packaged drinking water segment , Bisleri is trying to provide its bottle at comparative lower rate that reduces its profit which ultimately reduced the dealer margins, so many dealers are not keeping bisleri in many areas due to low profit margins. d. Faulty Packaging Accident in 2000:- BIS cancels BisleriÃ¢â¬â¢s license of a water bottling in Delhi since some of the bottles did not carry ISI label, that affected the reputation of the company. e. Fault in Production:- The most hiped production fault of bisleri occurred in 2002 when an insect was found in one of the Bisleri Bottles, that accident affected the trust of bisleri among the customers . f. Unable to meet the demands:- As the distribution policy of Bisleri is not up to the mark , it is unable to meet the demands in particular areas of the country like south nd eastern part of India. 3. Opportunities:- Opportunities in front of Bisleri are as follows:- 1. Growing market in the packaged drinking water segment:- The market of the packaged drinking water is increasing at higher rate as the packaged water is able to provide purified water which is portable and is available in all parts of the country. Market for the packaged drinking water is increasing every year that is at tracting many more companies towards this segment. 2. Bisleri can utilize its brand name for increasing sales:- As bisleri has pioneered the packaged drinking water segment , it has became an generic term for mineral water. Bisleri can make use of its popularity to increase its sales in such an growing market of the packaged drinking water segment. 3. Expansion in Europe and America:- Bisleri have made plans to venture out in Europe and America to sell bottled water, this will help bisleri to create an international brand image. 4. Launch of New products depending on its brand name:- Bisleri can launch new products depending on its established brand name in the market, like launching high price premium bottles with different packaging that will give tough competition to established players in premium packaged water segment. 4. Threat:- 1. Attraction of other companies in the packaged drinking water segment:- As the market of packaged drinking water is increasing year by year, this is attracting various other players to enter in the market of packaged drinking water. If more players enter in this market the profit margin of bisleri will definitely be affected. 2. Availability of cheap water purifiers in the market:- The water purifiers are now made available to the customers at lower prices which is now attracting the customers of the bulk segment of Bisleri. 3. Piracy:- Despite of the launch of tamper-proof and tamper-evident seal the company is not able to control the piracy of the bottles which is taking place through the used bottles of bisleri. Due to improper recycling strategy the used bottles of bisleri are pirated at an higher rate by the local manufactures. 4. Competition from establishes players like Pepsi and Coca-Cola:- Bisleri biggest threat are the established players like Pepsi and Coca-Cola which have vast distribution network as compared to Bisleri. Due to distribution problems bisleri is not able to meet the demands in particular areas of the country which is diverting the minds of the customer to various other brands which have stronger distribution networks and the local manufactures. . Decreasing Ground Water level:- The ground water level is decreasing year by year due to extensive drilling done , as bisleri requires approx 3 litres of ground water to produce 1 litre of its mineral water. Decreasing water level is also one of the major threat to the packaged drinking water company. New Product that should be launched by Bisleri:- According to me Bisleri should launch its products in the energy drink segmen t. There are not many players of energy drink in India, the major energy drink player in Indian is XXX energy drink. As Bisleri is the most popular packaged drinking water brand , it should utilize its brand name in launching the energy drink which contains mainly glucose and should have and Indian touch for the Indian market like the Ã¢â¬Å"Nimbu-paaniÃ¢â¬ flavor. Brand name along with the Indian touch and high amount of Glucose are the factors that will help Bisleri to achieve high sales and profit in this sector of energy drink. As there are not many players in the energy drink market it is simple for Bisleri to utilize its brand name to establish its position in the energy drink market.
Thursday, February 27, 2020
Compare and contrast Burke's narrative of the scientific revolution with Merchant's - Assignment Example This film primarily focuses on highlighting the impacts of science and technology on the western culture. Episode 04 of the movie talks about how Ã¢â¬Å"printing has transformed knowledgeÃ¢â¬ . Storage, use, and processing of information were significantly changed by GutenbergÃ¢â¬â¢s discovery of printing (Burke @-7:40). In episode 05, Burke talks about Ã¢â¬Å"how science has revised the heavensÃ¢â¬ . The main issue addressed in this episode is that the heavens do not revolve around the earth (Burke @-9:10). The key issues that are presented by both Merchant and Burke are that scientific and technological advancements have changed human societies. Merchant narrates that science and technological advancements have significantly transformed the environment and its fraternity in a negative way, while Burke believes that science and technological advancements have influence human societies in a positive way. Merchant believes that science and technology have led to excessive destruction of the natural environment and its fraternity. Activities like logging, hunting, and tapping at the onset of increasing urbanization and industrialization that took place in European nations, influenced Indians to begin destroying their natural environment (Merchant 143). Burke on the other hand, claims that written materials made it possible for information to be stored in hard copies, and this in turn also made it possible for history to be stored in the form of writing for easy remembrance. The ability to keep recorded financial statements among other records reduced the rate of corruption in the Catholic Church, and this is what also led to the emergence of Lutheran movements (Burke
Tuesday, February 11, 2020
How Information Technology impact in business world - Research Paper Example Current trends in Information Technology include; cloud computing and information security. Alternatively, the view of Daintith John (2009) is that Ã¢â¬Å"Information Technology is the use of computers and telecommunication facilities in business; to collect, manipulate, transmit, store and retrieve data. Information Technology refers to computers plus computer networks, but can also include information transmitting equipments like satellites, phone, televisions and radios. IT infrastructure involves the framework on which information networks operate.Ã¢â¬ The infrastructure include; computers, networks, database management systems and a regulatory framework. In the field of Information Technology, infrastructure refers to physical hardware which connects computers and users, for example, telephone lines, satellites, television cables and antennas. To some people, infrastructure is anything that supports the processing of data and information. Erick Miley (2014) explains that Ã¢â¬Å"Information Technology is an occupation or profession that identifies with computer technology." He stresses that modern businesses use computers to ensure high standards of customer service and efficiency. The benefits if information Technology to businesses many. Computers process information at very high speeds, for examples emails deliver messages instantly. Business information can be updates on market. Increased computer speed ensures efficiency in information processing. Computers are also able to multi-task accurately and quickly, for example, solving complex mathematical equations. IT ensures low business costs; this is due to the fact that as technology becomes more common it also becomes affordable. It has led to more entrepreneurship opportunities; this is because many people nowadays work at home using the internet. (Allen and Morton 37). According to Chirantan Basu, Demand
Friday, January 31, 2020
Riordan Manufacturing Recommendations Essay Riordan Manufacturer is a global producer of plastics. They operate in four locations, three in the United States and one plant in the PeopleÃ¢â¬â¢s Republic of China. RiordanÃ¢â¬â¢s United StatesÃ¢â¬â¢ plastic products include beverage containers produced in Atlanta, Georgia, and custom plastic parts in Pontiac, Michigan. The Hangzhou, China plant produces plastic fan parts and corporate headquarters is in San Jose, California, (Apollo Group, 2006). Riordan Manufacturing is looking to update their human resources department with the newest and latest software recommendations. The following is a summary of the history, current set up of the department and a recommendation of the upgrade. Human Resources Information Systems RiordanÃ¢â¬â¢s HRIS system was set up in 1992, part of the financial systems that keep track of employee information, rate of pay, exemptions, date of hire, seniority based on date of hire, which is difficult and different from the hire date, managerÃ¢â¬â¢s name, department information, and non-exempt vacation time. Managers submit a form for changes to the employee information and then entered by the payroll clerk into the system. Microsoft Excel is used to keep records on training and development. Recruiters maintain information for each open position within Riordan. All resumes filed in a central location and Excel is used to track application status. A third-party manages the WorkerÃ¢â¬â¢s compensation and keeps records at that location, not Riordan. Each manager keeps employee information for that department, which there is no central location for keeping these files. Managers are responsible for tracking all FMLA absences and any ADA recommendations. Excel spreadsheets are used for the compensation manager for job analysis, surveys on salary, and compensation decisions on individuals. Specialists in the employee relation department keep track of complaints, harassment complaints, grievances, all other employee relation information, and are then filed and locked in the employee relation department. Recommendations for Human Resources Information Systems Riordan has a diverse set of needs over four locations, one of which is an international factory located in China. This will require the software to be flexible to handle different culture and regulatory environments. Also the system will capture information form a diverse set of archival media. This is not limited to digital information but vast amounts of paper files will need to be integrated into the system. Systems complex will have specialized technical skills to deploy, customize, and maintain its operations as well as experts to provide training for personal. Ultimately careful consideration must be given to the existing processes and the results of the project. Because services are provided company-wide careful consideration about the capabilities of the program to adapt to different culture mores and holidays is a must. Also the services provided to employees need to be available in the local languages of the countries they reside. To accomplish this provider of the software must be fluent in both countries of operation. They should also have an established presence in both countries to provide service in and by local professionals. Riordan has a long history of data for its operations many of the records are stored in paper files and legacy office products rapidly nearing their production life. As such to pull historical data for strategic planning the system will need to collect data form a wide range of active and archival sources. Providers, who have a long history, will often have experience with these both with their own products and that of their competitors. As a manufacturing company of plastic parts and bottles there is a fair chance that the company will not have the skills required for such an undertaking. So the provider must be established in the market to have spawned a large pool of expert professionals using this solution. This will help in negotiating service and training contracts. The current project proposal The current HRIS project is projected to 180 days from start to the implementation of the project. The initial project will begin with a meeting with Hugh McCauley, . Questions specified to gathering information from human resources, about the current system, what he expects from the new developed system, and expectations will be of the meeting. A follow-up e-mail will also ask the same questions to aid in the answers and also give a general idea of the project guidelines, requirements, and expectations. The next step is meeting with Yvonne McMillan, Director of Human Resources. She will also have some of the same questions for the project as Mr. McCauley did during his meeting. Yvonne will be part of the initial team composed of other managers within the company and from other locations. A follow-up e-mail will also have the questions for general idea purposes. Therefore, we recommend a team comprised of management from Yvonne McMillan, Maria Trihn, Dale Edgel, Donald Bryson, Mari Carillo, Patricia Miller, Dirk Kort, Stacey Jones, and the Chinese National. Each member is from a different location within the company, from human resources, training and development, the IT department from each location including the Chinese location, finance department, and accounting and finance/controller department. Most of the initial meetings will be over an Internet setting to keep the initial cost down for the project and within the constraints inside the budget. This team will recover information from the current human resources department at Riordan to help developers to a system. This system will can be used in each location. During this stage weekly meetings will be held to discuss progress, ideas, problems, and budget matters. After information is gathered and the next step can move forward, the team will meet with developers with their presentation. Once the developers have gathered the initial information, developed a preliminary design, and prepared a presentation, they will meet with McCauley to present the general idea for the system. The development team will work on this project for the next 110 days. Once a month meetings will be scheduled between developers and the team members to discuss progress, problems, budget constraints, and hours to date. During this time, developers will check in with Yvonne with issues, concerns, and suggestions not discussed in the monthly meetings. Developers set up a trial run on RiordanÃ¢â¬â¢s current system. The developers will have 14 days to set up and check for compatibility issues. At which time, suggestions can be made for updates or upgrades to the current system. Once this phase of the project is successfully completed, the implementation phase will begin. Managers in the IT department will then begin the implementation phase of the project for their location. This phase should take 14 days to complete. Each location will have four days to complete and implement changes, upgrades, and updates to the system before training and in-service meetings will begin. Members of the training and development department will schedule and hold training and in-service for all departments in each location. This final stage will take eight days to complete. Each IT department for each location will be ready and available for any glitches or problems, which may arise.
Thursday, January 23, 2020
The use of detailed satire through A Modest Proposal The use of detailed satire is very evident in A Modest Proposal. A writerÃ¢â¬â¢s hand that brings the readerÃ¢â¬â¢s eye to the effect of sociopolitical policies on the Irish by the English landlords and politicians in the early 1700s, could have only belonged to Jonathon Swift. Swift skillfully addresses Ã¢â¬Å" the suffering caused by English policies in Ireland Ã¢â¬ as well as holding the Irish accountable for their Ã¢â¬Å"passivity.Ã¢â¬ Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Swift begins by using a gradual egression, setting the tone of the current situation in Dublin, only to shock the reader at his proposal of cannibalism, specifically of young children, to help alleviate the economic burdens imposed by the English and accepted by the Irish. In laying the foundation for his proposal, Swift suggests the benefits for all: Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã But my intention is very far from being confined to provide only for the children of professed beggars; it is of a much greater extent, and shall take in the whole number of infants at a certain age, who are born of parents in effect as little able to support them as those who demand our charity in the streets. Swift continues on, using excruciating detail, suggesting preparation for dining, the appropriate number of dinner guests the young child will feed, and the price of such a feast. All the while this morbid suggestion is detailed rationally. Swift brilliantly targets the English landlords when he addresses the price of the food, and how it is appropriate since Ã¢â¬Å"as they have already devoured most of the parents, seem to have the best title to the children.Ã¢â¬ SwiftÃ¢â¬â¢s use of detail purposely takes the reader away from the proposal to show the examples of how cannibalism has worked elsewhere, only in a satiric effort to show the reader this is not the way to improve the city of Dublin. The build-up of this proposal continues to its conclusion where Swift has taken the reader to the actual expedients, although rejecting them for no hope of them ever being
Tuesday, January 14, 2020
Review Article Indian J Med Res 134, October 2011, pp 552-560 Invasive & non-invasive approaches for prenatal diagnosis of haemoglobinopathies: Experiences from India R. B. Colah, A. C. Gorakshakar & A. H. Nadkarni National Institute of Immunohaematology (ICMR), Mumbai, India Received October 29, 2010 The thalassaemias and sickle cell disease are the commonest monogenic disorders in India. There are an estimated 7500 Ã¢â¬â 12,000 babies with ? -thalassaemia major born every year in the country. While the overall prevalence of carriers in different States varies from 1. to 4 per cent, recent work has shown considerable variations in frequencies even within States. Thus, micromapping would help to determine the true burden of the disease. Although screening in antenatal clinics is being done at many centres, only 15-20 per cent of pregnant women register in antenatal clinics in public hospitals in the first trimester of pregnancy. There are only a handful of centres in major cities in this vast country where prenatal diagnosis is done. There is considerable molecular heterogeneity with 64 mutations identified, of which 6 to 7 common mutations account for 80-90 per cent of mutant alleles. First trimester foetal diagnosis is done by chorionic villus sampling (CVS) and DNA analysis using reverse dot blot hybridization, amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS) and DNA sequencing. Second trimester diagnosis is done by cordocentesis and foetal blood analysis on HPLC at a few centres. Our experience on prenatal diagnosis of haemoglobinopathies in 2221 pregnancies has shown that >90 per cent of couples were referred for prenatal diagnosis of ? -thalassaemia after having one or more affected children while about 35 per cent of couples were referred for prenatal diagnosis of sickle cell disorders prospectively. There is a clear need for more data from India on non-invasive approaches for prenatal diagnosis. Key words Haemoglobinopathies Ã¢â¬â India Ã¢â¬â invasive and non-invasive approaches Ã¢â¬â prenatal diagnosis Introduction The inherited disorders of haemoglobin are the most common monogenic disorders globally. Around 7 per cent of the population worldwide are carriers with more than 3,00,000 severely affected babies born every year1. Prenatal diagnosis is an integral component of a community control programme for haemoglobinopathies. Estimating the disease burden, generating awareness in the population, screening 552 o identify carriers and couples at Ã¢â¬â risk and genetic counselling are prerequisites for a successful prevention programme. The remarkable success of such programmes in the 1970s in Cyprus, Italy, Greece and the UK led to the development of control programmes in many other countries2-6. The extent of the problem in India ? -thalassaemia has been reported in most of the communities that have been screened so far in India. While the overall prevalence varies from 1. 5 to 4 per COLAH et al: PRENATAL DIAGNOSIS OF HAEMOGLOBINOPATHIES IN INDIA 553 ent in different States, communities like Sindhis, Punjabis, Lohanas, Kutchi Bhanushalis, Jains and Bohris have a higher prevalence (4-17%)7-12. Different reportshaveestimatedthat7500-12,000? -thalassaemia major babies would be born in India each year12 -14. It has also been shown recently by micromapping at the district level in two States, Maharashtra and Gujarat in westernIndiathattheprevalenceof? -thalassaemiatrait in different districts within these States is variable (0 9. 5%). Based on these estimates there would be around 1000birthsof? thalassaemiamajorbabieseachyear in these two States alone15. Thus, such data should be obtained from different States to know the true burden of the disease and for planning and executing control programmes. Haemoglobin S (Hb S) is prevalent in central India and among the tribal belts in western, eastern and southern India, the carrier rates varying from 1-40 per cent16-18. It has been estimated that over 5000 babies with sickle cell disease would be born each year19. Haemoglobin E is widespread in the north eastern States in Assam, Mizoram, Manipur, Arunachal Pradesh and Tripura, the prevalence of Hb E trait being highest (64%) among the Bodo-Kacharis in Assam and going up to 30-40 per cent in some other populations in this region20-22. In eastern India the prevalence of Hb E trait varies from 3-10 per cent in West Bengal8,23. Both Hb E andHbSwhenco-inheritedwith? -thalassaemiaresult in a disorder of variable clinical severity24-26. These inherited haemoglobin disorders cause considerable pain and suffering to the patients and their families and are a major drain on health resources in the country. The need for accurate identification of carries and couples at risk Classical ? thalassaemia carriers have typically reduced red cell indices [mean corpuscular volume (MCV)T) ? + 3. -87 (C>T) ? + 4. -80 (C>T) ? + 5. -29 (A>G) ? + 6. -28 (A>G) ? + 7. -25 (A>G) ? + B. Cap site 1. +1 (A>C) ? + C. Initiation codon 1. ATG > ACG ? 0 D. RNA processing mutations i) Splice junction site 1. Codon 30 (G>C) ? 0 2. Codon 30 (G>A) ? 0 3. IVS 1-1 (G>T) ? 0 4. IVS 1-1 (G>A) ? 0 5. IVS 1-129 (A>C) ? 0 6. IVS 1-130 (G>C) ? 0 7. IVS 1-130 (G>A) ? 0 8. IVS II-1 (G>A) ? 0 (ii) Consensus site 1. IVS 1-5 (G>C) ? + 2. IVS 1-128 (TAG > GAG) ? + 3. IVS II-837 (T>G) ? (iii) IVS changes 1. IVS I-110 (G>A) ? + 2. IVS II-591 (T>C) ? + 3. IVS II-613 (C>T) ? + 4. IVS II-654 (C>T) ? + 5. IVS II-745 (C>G) ? + iv) Coding region changes 1. Codon 26 (G>A) Hb E ? + E. RNA translational mutations i) Nonsense 1. Codons 4,5,6 (ACT CCT GAG> ACA TCT ? 0 TAG) 2. Codon 5 (-CT), Codon 13 (C>T), Codon 26 ? (G>C), Codons 27/28 (+C) in cis 3. Codon 6 (GAG > TAG) and on the same ? 0 chromosome Codon 4 (ACT> ACA) , Codon 5 (CCT>TCT) 4. Codon 8 (A>G) ? 5. Codon 13 (C>T), Codon 26 (G>A), Codons ? 27/28 (-C) in cis 6. Codon 15 (TGG > TAG) ? 0 7. Codons 62-64 (7 bp del) ? 0 8. Codons 81-87 (22 bp del) ? 9. Codon 121 (G>T) ? 0 ContdÃ¢â¬ ¦. themselves, today their relatives and extended families are coming forward to get screened38. There is only one centre in Lucknow in north India which offers a formal course for genetic counsellors and there is a need for more such courses throughout the country. Counsellors should be aware that couples at risk of havingachildwith? -thalassaemiamajor,sicklecel l disease, Hb S ? -thalassaemia, Hb E ? -thalassaemia, Ã¢â¬â ? -thalassaemia, Hb Lepore ? -thalassaemia and Hb SD disease should be given the option of prenatal diagnosis to avoid the birth of a child with a severe disorder. However, couples at risk of having a child with Hb D disease, Hb D ? -thalassaemia and Hb E disease do not require prenatal diagnosis as these disorders are mild. InSardinia,identificationofthemaximumnumber of carriers followed by effective genetic counselling helpedtoreducethebirthrateof? -thalassaemiamajor babies from 1:250 to 1:400039. Prenatal diagnosis The first initiatives in India Facilities for prenatal diagnosis became available in India in the mid 1980s40. Until then, although prenatal diagnosis was offered by a few centres, foetal samples were sent to the UK and other countries for analysis. Foetal blood sampling by foetoscopy done between 18 and 22 wk gestation and diagnosis by globin chain synthesis were done for the next 4 to 5 years at 2 centres in Mumbai40,41. Chorionic villus sampling and DNA analysis in the first trimester In the 1990s first trimester foetal diagnosis by chorionic villus sampling (CVS) and DNA analysis was established at 4-5 centres in the north in Delhi42, in the west in Mumbai41,43,44 and in the south in Vellore45. These services then expanded to other cities like Lucknow and Chandigarh in the north46,47, and Kolkata in the east48. However, these services are still limited to major cities where couples are referred to or CVS samples are sent from surrounding areas. Molecular analysis ? -thalassaemia is extremely heterogeneous with more than 200 mutations described worldwide49. In India, about 64 mutations have been characterized by studies done at different centres30,31,49-51 (Table I). Six to seven mutations [IVS 1-5 (G? C), 619 bp deletion, IVS 1-1 (G? T), Codon 8/9 (+G), Codons 41/42 (-CTTT), COLAH et al: PRENATAL DIAGNOSIS OF HAEMOGLOBINOPATHIES IN INDIA (ii) Frameshift 1. Codon 5 (-CT) 2. Codons 7/8 (+G) 3. Codon 8 (-AA) 4. Codons 8/9(+G) 5. Codon 13 (C>T) 6. Codon 15 (-T) 7. Codon 16 (-C) 8. Codon 16 (C>T) 9. Codon 17 (A>T) 10. Codons 22-24 (7 bp del) 11. Codon 26 (G>T) 12. Codon 35 (A>G) 13. Codons 36/37 (-T) 14. Codons 36-39 (8 bp del) 15. Codon 39 (C>T) 16. Codon 44 (-C) 17. Codons 47/48 (+ATCT) 18. Codon 55 (+A) 19. Codon 55 (-A) 20. Codons 57/58 (+A) 21. Codon 88 (+T) 22. Codons 106/107 (+G) 23. Codon 110 (T>C) 24. Codon 111 (-G) 25. Codon 135 (C>T) F. RNA cleavage and polyadenylation mutation 1. AATAAA>AACAAA G. Deletional mutations 1. 619 bp deletion; 3Ã¢â¬â¢end 2. 10. 3 kb deletion 3. Codons 126-131 (17 bp deletion) Source: Refs 30, 31, 49-51 55 ?0 ? 0 ? 0 ? 0 ? 0 ? 0 ? 0 ? 0 ? 0 ? 0 ? 0 ? 0 ? 0 ? 0 ? 0 ? 0 ? 0 ? 0 ? 0 ? 0 ? 0 ? 0 ? 0 ? + ? 0 ? + ? 0 ? 0 ? 0 Fig. 1. Regionaldistributionof? -thalassaemiamutationinIndia. molecular techniques like covalent reverse dot blot hybridization (CRDB), amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS), denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), and DNA sequencing43,44 ,52. Foetal blood analysis in the second trimester Most of the prenatal diagnosis programmes in the Mediterranean countries started with second trimester foetal blood analysis but they were able to switch over tofirsttrimesterdiagnosisinashortspan5,39. In India, second trimester diagnosis is still done as manycouplesatriskareidentifiedlateduringpregnancy. Foetal blood sampling is done by cordocentesis at 18 to20wkgestationandafterconfirmingthatthereisno maternal contamination in the foetal sample by foetal cell staining using the Kleihauer-Betke method, it is analysed by HPLC on the Variant Hemoglobin Testing System (Bio Rad Laboratories, Hercules, USA). The HbA levels in foetuses affected with ? -thalassaemia major have ranged from 0 to 0. 5 per cent and these were distinguishable from heterozygous babies where the Hb A levels were >1. per cent in different studies. However, there was some overlap in Hb A levels between heterozygotes and normals53-55. Sickle cell disease and Hb E thalassaemia have also been diagnosed in this way. On the other hand, experience in Thailand showed that while ? 0 thalassaemia homozygotes and HbE-? 0 thalassaemia compound heterozygotes could be diagnosed by HPLC analysis of foetal blood, ? ++ thalassae mia homozygotes may be misdiagnosed as heterozygotes56. Amniotic fluid cells have not been used extensively in India for prenatal diagnosis of haemoglobinopathies. Codon 15 (G? A), Codon 30 (G? C)] are common accounting for 85-95 per cent of mutant alleles. However, regional differences in their frequencies have been noted30,31,50,51 (Fig. 1). The prevalence of IVS 1 -5 (G? C), the most common mutation in India varies from 15-88 per cent in different States. Codon 15 (G? A) is the second most frequent mutation in Maharashtra and Karnataka and Codon 5 (-CT) is the third most common mutation in Gujarat. The -88 (C? T) and the Cap site +1 (A? C) mutations are more common in the northern region30,31,50. The 619 bp deletion is the most common mutation among the immigrant population from Pakistan. This knowledge on the distribution of mutations in different regions and in people of different ethnic backgrounds has facilitated prenatal diagnosis using 556 INDIAN J MED RES, OCTOBER 2011 Experience at National Institute Immunohaematology (NIIH), Mumbai of Bothfirstandsecondtrimesterprenataldiagnosis for the ? -thalassaemias and sickle cell disorders are done at National Institute of Immunohaematology, Mumbai, and over the last 25 years 2,221 pregnancies at risk have been investigated (Table II). While majority of the couples were at risk of having children with ? thalassaemia major, a significant number of couples at risk of having children with sickle cell disorders have been referred for prenatal diagnosis in the last 4 to 5 years. Our experience in western India has shown that there are still very few couples (G; or codon 35 ? (A? G) at alpha -beta chain interfaces. Ann Hematol 2009; 88 : 1269-71. 52. Old JM, Varawalla NY, Weatherall DJ. The rapid detection and prenatal diagno sis of ? -thalassemia in theAsian Indian and Cyproit populations in the UK. Lancet 1990; 336 : 834-7. 53. Rao VB, Natrajan PG, Lulla CP, Bandodkar SB. Rapid midtrimester prenatal iagnosis of beta-thalassaemia and other haemoglobinopathies using a non- radioactive anion exchange HPLC technique Ã¢â¬â an Indian experience. Prenat Diagn 1997; 17 : 725-31. 54. Wadia MR, Phanasgaokar SP, Nadkarni AH, Surve RR, Gorakshakar AC, Colah RB, et al. Usefulness of automated chromatography for rapid fetal blood analysis for second trimester prenatal diagnosis of beta-thalassemia. Prenat Diagn 2002; 22 : 153-7. 559 55. Rao S, Saxena R, Deka D, Kabra M. Use of HbA estimation by CE-HPLC for prenatal diagnosis of beta-thalassemia; experience from a tertiary care centre in north India: a brief report. Hematology 2009; 14 : 122-4. 56. Winichagoon P, Sriphanich R, Sae-Mgo WB, Chowthaworm J, Tantisirin P, Kanokpongsakdi S, et al. Application of automated HPLC in prenatal diagnosis of thalassemia. Lab Hematol 2002; 8 : 29-35. 57. Holzgreve W. Will ultrasound screening and ultrasound guided procedures be replaced by non-invasive techniques for the diagnosis of fetal chromosome anomalies? Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 1997; 9 : 217-9. 58. Steele CD, Wapner RJ, Smith JB, Haynes MK, Jackson LG. Prenatal diagnosis using fetal cells isolated from maternal peripheral blood. Clin. Obstet Gynecol 1996; 39 : 801-13. 59. Mesker WE, Ouwerkerk-vn Velzen MC, Oosterwijk JC, Bernini LF, Golbus MS, Kanhai HH, et al. Two colour immunocytochemical staining of gamma and epsilon type hemoglobin in fetal red cells. Prenat Diagn 1998; 18 : 1131-7. 60. Takabayashi H, Kuwabara S, Ukita T, Ikawa K, Yamafuji K, Igarashi T. Development of non-invasive fetal DNA diagnosis from maternal blood. Prenat Diagn 1995; 15 : 74-7. 61. Cheung MC, Goldberg JD, Kan YW. Prenatal diagnosis of sickle cell anemia and thalassemia by analysis of fetal cells in maternal blood. Nat Genet 1996; 14 : 264-8. 62. Di Naro E, Ghezzi F, Vitucci A, Tannoia N, Campanale D, DÃ¢â¬â¢ Addario V, et al. Prenataldiagnosisof? -thalassemiausing fetal erythroblasts enriched from maternal blood by a novel gradient. Mol Hum Reprod 2000; 6 : 571-4. 63. Kolialexi A, Vrettou C, Traeger-Synodinos J, Burgemeister R, Papantoniou N, Kanavakis E, et al. Non invasive prenatal diagnosisof? -thalassemiausingindividualfetalerythroblasts isolated from maternal blood after enrichment. Prenat Diagn 2007; 27 : 1228-32. 64. DÃ¢â¬â¢Souza E, Sawant PM, Nadkarni AH, Gorakshakar A, Mohanty D, Ghosh K, et al. Evaluation of the use of monoclonal antibodies and nested PCR for non-invasive prenatal diagnosis of hemoglobinopathies in India. Am J Clin Pathol 2008; 130 : 202-9. 65. Lo YM, Corbetta N, Chamberlain PF, Rai V, Sargent IL, Redman CW, et al. Presence of fetal DNA in maternal plasma and serum. Lancet 1997; 350 : 485-7. 66. Lo YM, Tein MS, Lau TK, Haines CJ, Leung TN, Poon PM, et al. Quantitaive analysis of fetal DNA in maternal plasma and serum: implications for non invasive prenatal diagnosis. Am J Hum Genet 1998; 62 : 768-75. 67. Lun FMF, Chiu RWK, Allen Chan KC, Lau TK, Leung TY, Dennis Lo YM. Microfluidics digital PCR reveals a higher than expected fraction of fetal DNA in maternal plasma. Clin Chem 2008; 54 : 1664-72. 68. Li Y, Zimmermann B, Rusterholz C, Kang A, Holzgrave W, Hahn S. Size separation of circulating DNA in maternal plasma permits ready detection of fetal DNA polymorphisms. Clin Chem 2004; 50 : 1002-11. 69. Chiu RW, Lau TK, Leung TK, Chow KC, Chui DH, Lo YM. Prenatal exclusion of beta thalassemia major by examination of maternal plasma. Lancet 2002; 360 : 998-1000. 560 INDIAN J MED RES, OCTOBER 2011 beta thalassemia point mutation by MALDI Ã¢â¬â TOF mass spectrometry. Fetal Diagn Ther 2009; 25 : 246-9. Papasavva T, Kalikas I, Kyrri A, Kleanthous M. Arrayed primer extension for the noninvasive prenatal diagnosis of beta thalassemia based on detection of single nucleotide polymorphism. Ann N Y Acad Sci USA 2008; 1137 : 302-8. Li Y, Di Naro E, Vitucci A, Zimmermann B, Holzgreve W, Hahn S. Detection of paternally inherited fetal point mutations for beta thalassemia using size fractionated cell free DNA in maternal plasma. J Am Med Assoc 2005; 293 : 843-9. Chan K, Yam I, Leung KY, Tang M, Chan TK, Chan V. Detection of paternal alleles in maternal plasma for noninvasive prenatal diagnosis in beta thalassemia: a feasibility study in southern China. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Repord Biol 2010; 150 : 28-33. Lo YMD. Non invasive prenatal diagnosis in 2020. Prenat Diagn 2010; 30 : 702-3. 70. Papasavva T, Kalakoutis G, Kalikas I, Neokli E, Papacharalambous S, Kyrri A, et al. Non-invasive prenatal diagnostic assay for the detection of beta thalassemia. Ann NY Acad Sci USA 2006; 1075 : 148-53. 71. Tungwiwat W, Fucharoen G, Fucharoen S, Ratanasiri T, Sanchaisuriya K, Sae- Ung N. Application of maternal plasma DNA analysis for noninvasive prenatal diagnosis of Hb E beta thalassemia. Transl Res 2007; 150 : 319-25. 72. Lazaros L, Hatzi E, Bouba I, Makrydimas G, Dalkalitsis N, Stefos T, et al. Noninvasivefirsttrimesterdetectionofpaternal beta globin gene mutations and polymorphisms as predictors of thalassemia risk at chorionic villus sampling. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Repord Biol 2008; 140 : 17-20. 73. Li Y, Di Naro E, Vitucci A, Grill S, Ahong XY, Holzgreve W, et al. Size fractionation of cell free DNA in maternal plasma improves the detection of a paternally inherited 74. 75. 76. 77. Reprint requests: Dr Roshan Colah, Scientist F, National Institute of Immunohaematology (ICMR), 13th Floor, NMS Bldg, KEM Hospital Campus, Parel, Mumbai 400 012, India e-mail: [emailÃ protected] com
Monday, January 6, 2020
What is the difference between a quantity and a unit? If you are working science or math problems, the answer to this question is the quantity is the amount or numerical value, while the unit is the measurement. For example, if a sample contains 453 grams, the quantity is 453 while the unit is grams. For this example, the quantity is always a number, while units are any measure, such as grams, liters, degrees, lumens, etc. In a recipe, the quantity is how much you need and the unit describes what you use to measure it. For example, 3 tablespoons and 3 teaspoons have the same quantity, but they use different units. Its important to note the units, whether its in the lab or in the kitchen! Units in Science Versus Math There are, however, other ways to answer the question. A quantity may also be considered to be a nonspecific number of items, particularly ones that would be hard to count. You could refer to a quantity of water or a quantity of air and not cite the number of molecules or mass. Units sometimes refer to individual sets. For example, if you are studying chemistry, you might have a unit on gases, a unit on conversions, and a unit on balancing equations. A set of rooms in an apartment building may be called a unit. Any removable component in a piece of electronics might e called a unit. If the term unit is used this way, quantity can mean how many units you have. If you need 3 units of blood for a transfusion, the number 3 is the quantity. Each unit is a single container of blood. More About Units and Measurement Introduction to Metric UnitsUnits of Measurement Quiz